Hydrogen Engines: Energizing Mobility Amid Hurdles for Widespread Feasibility

By Ben Ahrens Published on Mar. 26, 2024

Hydrogen technology is transforming our perspective on mobility. Hydrogen engines are poised for remarkable expansion, catering to the rising demand for environmentally-friendly transportation solutions from conscientious consumers and governments worldwide. Not only are these engines eco-friendly, but they also exhibit exceptional efficiency, enabling vehicles to cover longer distances compared to conventional gasoline engines. However, despite this technology's immense promise, there remain significant hurdles to overcome for its widespread adoption.

Quick insights into hydrogen engines


hydrogen engines-hydrogen molecules
  • Hydrogen engines use hydrogen gas as fuel to produce electricity through a chemical reaction with oxygen, with water as the only byproduct.
  • Hydrogen engines offer a sustainable alternative to traditional internal combustion engines, aligning with decarbonization goals.
  • Hydrogen fuel cells can power various modes of transportation beyond cars, such as buses, trucks, trains, and airplanes.
  • Lack of infrastructure, high cost, hydrogen sourcing, and safety concerns are challenges to widespread adoption.
  • A comprehensive network of hydrogen fueling stations is necessary to support hydrogen-powered vehicles.
  • Ensuring safe storage, handling, and transportation of hydrogen is critical for public confidence in hydrogen-powered vehicles.

Overview of hydrogen technology and the electrolysis of water process

Hydrogen engines, also known as hydrogen fuel cell engines, utilize hydrogen gas as fuel to produce electricity through a chemical reaction with oxygen, with water being the only byproduct. This emission-free process makes hydrogen engines a promising alternative to traditional internal combustion engines that rely on fossil fuels. As the world moves towards decarbonization and addressing climate change, hydrogen engines offer a sustainable solution that aligns with the goals of the mobility industry.

Download our recent report: 2023 Hydrogen Report

The electrolysis of water plays a crucial role in the production of hydrogen needed for hydrogen engines. By passing an electric current through water, hydrogen gas is separated, enabling its storage and subsequent use as a fuel source. This process eliminates the need for fossil fuels in hydrogen production and provides a pathway toward a low-carbon and sustainable future in mobility. Fuel cells powered by hydrogen are also lighter, enabling vehicles to travel longer distances on a single tank of fuel.

Furthermore, the versatility of hydrogen as a fuel extends beyond cars. Hydrogen fuel cells can also power various modes of transportation, including buses, trucks, trains, and even airplanes. This flexibility allows for the widespread adoption of hydrogen engines across different aspects of the mobility industry, contributing to the overall reduction of carbon emissions.

Challenges to the widespread adoption of hydrogen engines

The widespread adoption of hydrogen engines is a monumental endeavor that holds immense potential for revolutionizing transportation and mitigating carbon emissions. However, this transition is not without its challenges.

hydrogen engines_congested highway

One of the primary obstacles is the lack of infrastructure. Establishing a comprehensive network of hydrogen fueling stations is crucial to support the widespread use of hydrogen-powered vehicles. Presently, the infrastructure for hydrogen refueling is limited compared to conventional gasoline or electric charging stations. Significant investment and coordination among various stakeholders, including governments, fuel providers, and automakers, will be required to overcome this challenge.

Cost is another critical factor hindering the widespread adoption of hydrogen engines. Currently, hydrogen fuel cell vehicles tend to be more expensive to produce and purchase compared to gasoline-powered or electric vehicles. This higher cost is primarily attributed to the complex and costly manufacturing processes involved in producing hydrogen fuel cells and the limited economies of scale. However, as technology advances and production volumes increase, economies of scale are expected to drive down costs and make hydrogen-powered vehicles more accessible.

Another challenge is the source of hydrogen itself. While hydrogen is the most abundant element in the universe, it typically needs to be extracted from other compounds, such as natural gas or water, through energy-intensive processes. The production of clean and sustainable hydrogen remains a challenge that requires advancements in renewable energy technologies, such as electrolysis powered by solar or wind energy. Addressing the environmental impact and ensuring the sustainable production of hydrogen will be crucial for hydrogen engines' long-term viability and success.

Furthermore, the safety concerns surrounding hydrogen should not be overlooked. Hydrogen is a highly flammable gas, and it is paramount to ensure its safe storage, handling, and transportation. Robust safety standards, protocols, and regulations need to be established to instill public confidence in hydrogen-powered vehicles.

Examining how current startups are leading the development of new hydrogen technologies

The hydrogen industry is experiencing a revolution thanks to the innovative solutions offered by a number of startups. These companies are pushing the boundaries and creating technologies that are changing the way we produce, store, and utilize hydrogen, ultimately leading toward a greener and more sustainable future. Discover the latest trends in hydrogen energy in this video, and read on for a deeper dive into solutions offered by highlighted startups.

CibusCell is leading the charge with its software-as-a-service (SaaS) solution. By leveraging real-time data from various sources such as sensors, weather conditions, storage availability, electricity prices, and supply and demand, CibusCell enables hydrogen producers and providers to scale their commercial viability in a significantly shorter time frame. CibusCell Cloud maximizes utilization and profitability through automated and optimized business decisions, making a greener future more achievable.

HySiLabs has developed a hydrogen-based liquid carrier that aims to streamline hydrogen transportation. This groundbreaking product allows for the stable storage, charging, and release of hydrogen, providing a safe and non-toxic fuel option. Using a fuel cell, the hydrogen-based liquid fuel can generate electricity to power a wide range of applications, including cars, generating sets, and portable devices. With zero emissions and non-explosive properties, HySiLabs offers customers a reliable and environmentally friendly energy solution.

Spark e-Fuels is focused on offering CO2-neutral aviation fuel specifically designed to achieve carbon neutrality. By harnessing renewable energy, air, and water, Spark e-Fuels produces sustainable aviation fuels, providing the aviation industry access to scalable and environmentally friendly e-fuels. This innovative approach is contributing to a greener and more sustainable aviation sector.

Download our ebook: Hydrogen: The Green Transition

Hydrogenious has developed cutting-edge hydrogen storage technology using liquid organic hydrogen carriers. This revolutionary solution enables the collection, storage, and controlled release of liquefied hydrogen gas. The stored hydrogen can be converted back into a fuel cell when needed, offering a safe, non-toxic, non-flammable, and non-explosive method for manufacturing plants to condense and preserve hydrogen for future use. Hydrogenious' innovative technology is paving the way for efficient and safe hydrogen storage.

Axsol specializes in power systems for mobile applications. Its products are designed to be charged using a variety of energy sources, including solar, wind, and fuel cells. Additionally, Axsol's products can be charged using grid power, which is stored in a high-performance battery. This unique feature allows consumers to travel, even in emergency situations, as the energy is securely stored in a powerful battery, providing convenience and reliability.

SunGreenH2 is at the forefront of modular green hydrogen technology. SunGreenH2 can generate zero-emission hydrogen on-site, at scale, by harnessing the power of sunlight and water. This breakthrough technology enables industries to produce sustainable hydrogen for transportation, buildings, and the specialty chemicals sectors, ushering in an era of environmental responsibility and energy efficiency.

How hydrogen engines will continue to grow in development and adoption

hydrogen engines_bustling city traffic with trees and skyline

While the widespread adoption of hydrogen engines holds great promise for a clean and sustainable future, several challenges must be addressed. Developing the necessary infrastructure, reducing costs, ensuring sustainable hydrogen production, and addressing safety concerns are critical steps to overcome. These challenges can be overcome with concerted efforts and continued technological advancements, opening up a new era of hydrogen-powered transportation.

List of startups


  1. CibusCell: Offers a software-as-a-service (SaaS) solution that is revolutionizing the hydrogen industry.
  2. HySiLabs: Developer of a hydrogen-based liquid carrier designed to streamline the transportation of hydrogen.
  3. Spark e-Fuels: Offers CO2-neutral aviation fuel specifically designed to achieve carbon neutrality.
  4. Hydrogenious: Developed a cutting-edge hydrogen storage technology that utilizes liquid organic hydrogen carriers.
  5. Axsol: Developer and designer specializing in power systems that offer charged solar, wind, and fuel cell products.
  6. SunGreenH2: Developer of a patented technology that harnesses the power of sunlight and water to generate zero-emission hydrogen on-site, at scale.

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